The Case Study of Using Photogrammetric Systems and Laser Scanning for Three-Dimensional Modeling of Cultural Heritage Sites
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University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, 20-950, Lublin, Poland
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Hubert Aleksander Małyszek   

University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, 20-950, Lublin, Poland
Adv. Sci. Technol. Res. J. 2023; 17(6):345–357
Advancements in digitizing technologies in recent years have enabled the creation of precise three-dimensional models using specialized equipment such as terrestrial laser scanners. Unfortunately, working with a device placed on the ground surface makes it impossible to directly measure roof structures, building vertices and hard-to-reach areas. However, unmanned aerial vehicles equipped with high-resolution cameras and a precise control system that allows maneuvers in the aforementioned places have a chance in this field. This article presents the complete process of digital 3D modeling of the town hall building in Zamość, using a combination of photogrammetry and laser scanning, along with geodetic measurement techniques. The study covers the planning stage, the field stage, and ends with accuracy analyses. Finally, the potential applications of the aforementioned object are discussed. The research identified several challenges during the project, including the need for meticulous planning to ensure optimal data acquisition, dealing with limitations of equipment mobility, and addressing data quality issues such as image blurriness and exposure variations. However, through careful calibration, data filtering, and quality assessment, these challenges were successfully mitigated. The study demonstrated the potential of advanced geodetic techniques in accurately digitizing complex architectural structures with rich historical significance. The detailed 3D model of the Zamość town hall serves as a valuable resource for further research, preservation efforts, and heritage documentation.