More details
Hide details
Department of Manufacturing Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technická 4, Praha 6, Czech Republi
Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Karlovo náměstí 13, Praha 2, Czech Republic
Publication date: 2016-03-01
Adv. Sci. Technol. Res. J. 2016; 10(29):57–61
High speed steels (HSS) as iron alloys reinforced by carbides of tungsten, chromium, vanadium and/or cobalt are known for more than 100 years. HSS is commonly used for cutting tools fabrication because of their high hardness, ductility, and strength and temperature resistance. Recently many different kinds of thin layers are often deposited on HSS tools in order to increase their lifetime. HSS are produced by conventional metallurgical methods and the tools are hardened by quenching and tempering. Recently, large part of HSS tools are produced by powder metallurgy (i.e. HIP-hot isostatic pressing). There are also some studies about thermal spraying of HSS but there is no evidence about Plasma Transfer Arc cladding of HSS. Two powders of HSS 23, resp. HSS30 grade were selected and deposited by Plasma Transfer Arc (PTA) and pulsed PTA on to mild steel substrate. In order to find the ability of thick layer forming, four layers cladding were used. To minimize heat input the influence of 76 Hz pulsation was also studied. Vickers hardness was measured on cross section and metallography of coatings was done. It was found that with selected parameters thick layer of HSS can be deposited. Pulsation increases the hardness of coatings in comparison with layers produced by direct current PTA. PTA and pulsed PTA methods of HSS parts fabrication can be used for both manufacturing and reparation of cutting tools and also for 3D additive manufacturing process.
Hou Q.Y., Gao J.S., Zhou F.: Microstructure and wear characteristics of cobalt-based alloy deposited by plasma transferred arc weld surfacing. Surface and Coatings Technology, 194(2–3), 2005, 238–243.
D’Oliveira A.S.C., Paredes R.S.C., Santos R.L.C., Pulsed current plasma transferred arc hardfacing. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 171(2), 2006, 167–174.
Rohan P., Kramár T., Panáček T.: Plasma hardfacing diagnostics (in Czech). In: Koukal J. (Ed.) Proceedings „New Materials, Technologies and Equipment for Welding“, CWS ANB, TU in Ostrava 2015.
Balamurugan S., Murugan N.: Simulation of Plasma Transferred ARC (PTA) Hardfaced on Structural Steel with Titanium Carbide. Journal of Engineering, Computers & Applied Sciences, 2(4), 2013.
Díaz V., Dutra J.C., D’Oliveira A.S.C.: Hardfacing by plasma transferred arc process. In: W. Sudnik (Ed.), InTech, Available from:
Bayer A.M. and Becherer B.A., High Speed Tool Steels: Teledyne Vasco, ASM Handbook, Vol. 16: Machining ASM Handbook Committee, 51–59.
Alloying elements and their influence on properties of steel, Satyedra. Web: posted on Apr. 20, 2013 in Ispat digest,
Sourmail T.: Near equiatomic FeCo alloys: constitution, mechanical and magnetic properties. Web:, 2005.
Madej M. 2012. Tungsten carbide as an addition to high speed steel based composites. Tungsten Carbide – Processing and Applications. In: Kui Liu (Ed.), InTech, DOI: 10.5772/51243. Available:
Wang H., Hou L, Zhang J., Lu L., Cui H., Zhang J., The secondary precipitates of niobium-alloyed M3:2 high speed steel prepared by spray deposition, Materials Characterization, 106, 2015, 245–254.
Mesquita R.A. and Barbosa C.A., Sumar´e HSS produced through conventional casting, sprayforming and powder metallurgy. In: Proceedings 6th International Tooling Conference, Villares Metals S. A., Sumar´e, Brazil 2010.
Torralba J.M. et al.: A review of high speed steels made by powder metallurgy methods. Powder Metallurgy Science and Technology, 4(3), 1993, 18–26, Metal Powder Report, 49(6), 1994, p. 45.
Wang S.-H., J.-Y. Chen, L. Xue, A study of the abrasive wear behaviour of laser-clad tool steel coatings. Surface and Coatings Technology, 200(11), 2006, 3446–3458.
Liu Z.H., Zhang D.Q., Chua C.K., Leong K.F.: Crystal structure analysis of M2 high speed steel parts produced by selective laser melting. Materials Characterization, 84, 2013, 72–80.
Sun G.F., Wang K., Zhou R., Feng A.X., Zhang W.: Effect of different heat-treatment temperatures on the laser cladded M3:2 high-speed steel, Materials & Design, 65, 2015, 606–616.
Vitry V., Nardone S., Breyer J.-P., Sinnaeve M., Delaunois F.: Microstructure of two centrifugal cast high speed steels for hot strip mills applications. Materials & Design, 34, 2012, 372–378.
Bourithis L., Papadimitriou G.D.: Synthesizing a class “M” high speed steel on the surface of a plain steel using the plasma transferred arc (PTA) alloying technique: microstructure and wear properties. Materials Science and Engineering, A361, 2003, 165–172.
Chaus A.S., Domankova M.: Precipitation of secondary carbides in M2 high-speed steel modified with titanium diboride. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 22(5), 2013, 1412–1420.