Effect of Surface Hydrophobization on the Durability of Concrete with Cement Kiln Dust
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Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 40 , 20‒618 Lublin, Poland
Faculty of Technical Science, John Paul II University in Biala Podlaska, Sidorska 95/97, 21‒500 Biała Podlaska, Poland
PGE EC S.A. Department of Heat and Power Plant in Lublin Wrotków, Inżynierska 4, 20-484 Lublin, Poland
Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 40B, 20‒618 Lublin, Poland
These authors had equal contribution to this work
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Małgorzata Grzegorczyk-Frańczak   

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 40 , 20‒618 Lublin, Poland
Adv. Sci. Technol. Res. J. 2024; 18(3)
The examinations of concrete involved partial substitution of cement with Cement Kiln Dust (CKD - 0, 5, 10, 20 and 30%). The water/cement (w/c) ratio amounted to 0.36. The obtained findings pertaining to open porosity, density, and volumetric density were found to correlate with the capillary action and absorptivity of the analyzed types of concrete. With the maximum addition of CKD, i.e. 30%, open porosity decreased by 35%. In turn, CKD added in the amount of 5% resulted in a slightly reduced addition compressive strength, amounting to 1.3% and 2.1% following 28 days and 56 days of concrete curing, respectively. After 28 days, the differences in strength were greater when the additive was supplied in higher amounts, i.e. 10%, 20%, and 30%, resulting in 6.5%, 13.4%, and 22.9% decrease, respectively, in spite of strength improvement. In terms of flexural and splitting tensile strengths, comparable relations were noted. As far as the frost resistance test results are concerned, the mass losses in all examined concretes were not significant, reaching up to 0.5%. The strength reduction in the case of the first three series of concretes was below 3%. When the CKD addition was increased to 20% and 30%, the value of the dynamic modulus of elasticity Ec,s decreased to a greater degree, by 8.0% and 14.7%, respectively. The hydrophobization effect is best seen in CKD-free concrete. After the impregnation, the loss of mass following the frost test of the samples is reduced by half. With a higher CKD content, the hydrophobization effectiveness is insignificant. The most favourable results were observed for hydrophobization with the oligomer-based preparation A1.
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