Investigation of infrared thermography of cortical bone grinding in neurosurgery
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Mechanical Engineering Department, Shree Guru Gobind Singh Tricentenary University, Gurugram-122505, India
Mechanical Engineering Department, Thapar Institute of engineering and technology, Patiala-147003, India
Department of Industrial and Production Engineering, Dr. B.R Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, 144011, India
School of Mechanical Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab- 144411, India
Department of Mechanical Engineering, GLA University, Mathura, UP 281406, Inida
Division of Research & Innovation, Uttaranchal University, Uttarakhand, 248007, Dehradun, India
Opole University of Technology
Marian Bartoszuk   

Opole University of Technology
In this work, an effort has been made to determine the effect of different shape surgical burr on the thermogenesis during bone osteotomy. The abrasion during bone grinding leads to heat generation and subsequently rise in the temperature which may have adverse effects such as osteonecrosis, blood coagulation in the carotid artery, damage to sciatic nerves, and even loss of vision. So, mitigating the temperature rise during bone grinding is of paramount importance. Especially, in endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) in which nasal passage is used for the inserting the grinding burr and reaching the target region. The miniature abrasion can significantly increase the temperature and hence leads to the thermal damage to nerves surrounding the temporal and frontal lobe. These parts of the brain controls movement, problem solving ability, behavior, personality mood, hearing, language, memory, speech, breathing, heart rate, consciousness etc. Furthermore, neurosurgeons rely on their personal surgical experience for estimating the temperature rise during grinding. However, this is much difficult for novice surgeons. Therefore, it becomes critically important to preserve the soft neural tissues and nerves amid bone grinding. To overcome these concerns, infrared thermography technique has been exploited to determine the possibility of thermogenesis during bone grinding by measuring the temperature rise and its distribution using infrared camera. All experiments have been carried at a constant set of process variables. The grinding zone is continuously flooded with the irrigating solution to remove the heat and bone debris away from the grinding site. It has been observed that convex tool shape generated lower maximum temperature i.e. 46.03 ℃ among all tools. The temperature produced by the convex tool is 12.06% lower than spherical tool, 33.39% lower than cylindrical tool, and 10.55% lower than tree-shape tool. The results showed that convex shape tool could prevent thermal necrosis in the bone as temperature caused (i.e. 46 ℃) was less than the threshold limit of osteonecrosis. Thermograms revealed that infrared thermography technique could be implemented for the in-vivo surgical operations for the measurement of temperature during bone grinding.